Respiratory Viruses Frequently Mimic Pertussis in Young Infants

by Damouni Shalabi, Ranaa, MD; Srugo, Isaac, MD; Golan-Shany, Orit, PhD; Kugelman, Amir, MD; Bamberger, Ellen, MD

To be published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, May 2019.

 

Bordetella pertussis is prevalent among infants, but its diagnosis is complicated by the fact that its signs and symptoms overlap with respiratory viruses. Indeed, when evaluating the etiology of infants less than 1 year of age suspected of having pertussis, resesarchers found that respiratory viruses frequently mimic B. pertussis and are more likely to be the causative agent.

 

Continue reading
Tags:
2 Hits
0 Comments

High-density Bacterial Nasal Carriage in Children Is Transient and Associated With Respiratory Viral Infections—Implications for Transmission Dynamics

by Thors, Valtyr, MD, PhD; Christensen, Hannah, PhD; Morales-Aza, Begonia, BSc; Oliver, Elizabeth, BSc; Sikora, Paulina, BSc; Vipond, Ian, PhD; Muir, Peter, MD, PhD; Finn, Adam, MD, PhD

To be published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, May 2019.

 

 

This longitudinal study describes the associations between respiratory viral infections, rhinitis and the prevalence and density of the common nasopharyngeal bacterial colonizers, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc), Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Staphylococcus aureus.

Continue reading
Tags:
3 Hits
0 Comments

Predictors of Poor Outcomes Among Infants With Respiratory Syncytial Virus–associated Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in Botswana

by Patel, Sweta M., MD; Spees, Lisa, PhD; Smieja, Marek, MD; Luinstra, Kathy, BSc; Steenhoff, Andrew P., MBBCh; Feemster, Kristen A., MD; Arscott-Mills, Tonya, MD; Boiditswe, Sefelani, BNSc; Patel, Mohamed Z., MBBCh; Shah, Samir S., MD; Cunningham, Coleen K., MD; Kelly, Matthew S., MD

To be published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, May 2019. 

 

 

Among children 1–23 months of age with respiratory syncytial virus–associated acute lower respiratory infection in Botswana, young age (<6 months), household use of wood as a cooking fuel, moderate or severe malnutrition and oxygen saturation <90% on room air were independent predictors of clinical nonresponse at 48 hours. Among HIV-uninfected infants less than six months of age, HIV exposure was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality.

Continue reading
Tags:
4 Hits
0 Comments

Influenza-associated Hospitalization in Children Younger Than 5 Years of Age in Suzhou, China, 2011–2016

by Yu, Jia, MPH; Zhang, Xiyan, MPH; Shan, Wei, MPH; Gao, Junmei, MPH; Hua, Jun, MD; Tian, Jianmei, MD; Ding, Yunfang, MD; Zhang, Jun, MD; Chen, Liling, MD; Song, Ying, MD; Zhou, Suizan, MPH; Iuliano, A. Danielle, PhD; Greene, Carolyn M., MD; Zhang, Tao, PhD; Zhao, Genming, PhD

To be published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, May 2019.

 

 

Studying the burden and risk factors associated with severe illness from influenza infection in young children in eastern China will contribute to future cost-effectiveness analyses of local influenza vaccine programs.

Continue reading
Tags:
2 Hits
0 Comments

Minimum Duration of Antibiotic Treatment Based on Blood Culture in Rule Out Neonatal Sepsis

by Ur Rehman Durrani, Naveed, MD, FCPS, MRCP; Rochow, Niels, MD; Alghamdi, Jameel, MD; Pelc, Anna, MSc; Fusch, Christoph, MD, PhD; Dutta, Sourabh, MD, PhD

To be published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, May 2019.

 

 

Neonatologists usually wait 48 hours for blood culture results before deciding to discontinue antibiotics. The objective of the study was to analyze time to positive blood culture in rule out sepsis and estimate the minimum duration of antibiotics.

Continue reading
4 Hits
0 Comments

Point-of-care Ultrasound for Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Children

by Bélard, Sabine, MD; Heuvelings, Charlotte C., MD; Heller, Tom, MD; Andronikou, Savvas, PhD; Grobusch, Martin P., FRCP; Zar, Heather J., PhD

To be published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, May 2019. 

 

 

Childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult to diagnose because clinical presentation is nonspecific, and microbiologic confirmation is only achieved in a minority of children. Imaging therefore plays an important diagnostic role. However, current imaging tools are limited by sensitivity and specificity, as well as availability and/or feasibility in children. The standard radiologic study in childhood tuberculosis (TB) is chest radiograph, which can show parenchymal disease or pleural effusion but may not accurately detect mediastinal lymphadenopathy, has poor interreader agreement and may not be affordable in resource-poor, highly endemic settings. Computed tomography (CT) may certainly demonstrate lymphadenopathy more often and may be more accurate for parenchymal disease, but it is not the “standard” technique because of radiation exposure and cost. CT or magnetic resonance imaging is even less accessible and require sedation in young children. New imaging approaches are urgently needed to improve diagnosis of childhood TB, and ultrasound emerges as promising noninvasive and cheap point-of-care tool. Authors focused on point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for detection of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) because children are vulnerable to develop disseminated forms of TB.

Continue reading
3 Hits
0 Comments

Viral Load Dynamics and Clinical Disease Severity in Infants With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

by Cristina Garcia-Mauriño, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Jessica Thomas, Sara Mertz, Daniel M Cohen, Octavio Ramilo, and Asuncion Mejias

Published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 12 November 2018. 

 

 

The association between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) loads and clinical outcomes in children remains to be defined. In most studies, viral loads (VL) were evaluated in hospitalized children and at a single time-point. Researchers investigated the relationship between VLs and disease severity in both outpatients and inpatients with RSV infection.

Continue reading
Tags:
2 Hits
0 Comments

New York Times Releases Article Introducing Butterfly iQ As Diagnostic Tool For Early Stage Pneumonia

Butterfly-iQ-NYT-img

The New York Times has just published an article featuring a new and exciting pneumonia diagnostic tool: Butterfly iQ. The Butterfly iQ scanners are primarily used to check for pneumonia, which is a major killer of children in poor countries and is frequently misdiagnosed. However, Dr. Cherniak and his team have found other exciting uses for the device. 

 

"The Butterfly is about the size of an electric shaver. It is battery-powered and contains microchips rather than piezoelectric crystals, so it usually won’t break if dropped. (That was accidentally tested a few times during a week that a reporter spent in rural Uganda with Dr. Cherniak’s team.)

For Butterfly Network, the Connecticut company that makes it, the profitable target customers are doctors and nurses who can afford a $2,000 device that fits in a coat pocket and is as portable as a stethoscope. But the scanner also has huge potential in rural Africa, Asia and Latin America, where the nearest X-ray machine may be hours away and the only CT and MRI scanners may be in the nation’s capital."

 

Continue reading
Tags:
10 Hits
0 Comments

April 17, 2019: Launch of the WHO Guideline Recommendations on Digital Health Interventions for Health Systems Strengthening

WHO-guideline-recs-on-dig-health-interventions-doc-201_20190415-152315_1

The World Health Organization invites you to the public launch of the WHO Guideline Recommendations on Digital Health Interventions for Health Systems Strengthening. This document, which represents the first Guideline on Digital Health Interventions from WHO, focuses on evidence-based recommendations on 10 ways countries can use digital health technology to improve health services. 

 

Please join the WHO online at the video streaming launch to learn about the guidelines and gain access to the final WHO Guideline: http://bit.ly/DHGuidelineLaunch  

 

The video stream will launch on April 17th, 2019 at •    5:00 PST •    8:00 EST •    13:00 GMT •    14:00 CEST •    15:00 EAT •    17:30 IST

Continue reading
Tags:
37 Hits
0 Comments

Human Coronavirus in Hospitalized Children With Respiratory Tract Infections: A 9-Year Population-Based Study From Norway

by Inger Heimdal, Nina Moe, Sidsel Krokstad, Andreas Christensen, Lars Høsøien, Skanke Svein, Arne Nordbø, and Henrik Døllner

Published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 15 April 2019. 

 

 

The burden of human coronavirus (HCoV)-associated respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in hospitalized children is poorly defined. Researchers studied the occurrence and hospitalization rates of HCoV over 9 years.

Continue reading
Tags:
2 Hits
0 Comments

The Center For Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy: Access Barriers to Antibiotics

Access-barriers-to-antibiotics

by Isabel Frost, Jess Craig, Jyoti Joshi, and Ramanan Laxminarayan

 

 

"In this report, researchers at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) conducted stakeholder interviews in Uganda, India, and Germany, and literature reviews to identify key access barriers to antibiotics in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

 

Continue reading
Tags:
5 Hits
0 Comments

Impact of the change in the WHO severe pneumonia case definition on hospitalized pneumonia epidemiology: case studies from six countries

by Fiona Russell, Rita Reyburn, Jocelyn Chan, Evelyn Tuivaga, Ruth Lim, Jana Lai, Hoang Minh Tu Van, Molina Choummanivong, Vanphanom Sychareun, Dung Khu Thi Khanh, Margaret de Campo, Penny Enarson, Stephen Graham, Sophie La Vincente, Tuya Mungun, Claire von Mollendorf, Grant Mackenzie & Kim Mulholland

Publication: Bulletin of the World Health Organization; Type: Research Article ID: BLT.18.223271 

 

The primary objective of this study was to quantify the impact of the change in definition of severe pneumonia on documented pneumonia burden. 

 

Continue reading
Tags:
13 Hits
0 Comments

USAID, Just Launched: AI in Global Health

AI-in-GH-img-USAID

Over the past several years, we have seen a wave of emerging technologies, from blockchain and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to artificial intelligence (AI), demonstrate significant potential to alter and disrupt multiple sectors, including healthcare. All too often, though, the global health community is a late adopter of these promising new technologies. We believe that, as technologies like AI are still early-stage and rapidly evolving, the development community has an important opportunity to explore and shape the market to ensure that technologies are appropriately and effectively introduced and scaled.

 

Recognizing the huge potential of AI in global health, The Rockefeller Foundation and United States Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Center for Innovation and Impact (CII) have partnered, in close coordination with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, to develop AI in Global Health: Defining a Collective Path Forward. This report identifies opportunities for donors, governments, investors, the private sector, and other stakeholders to explore and accelerate the appropriate development and cost-effective use of AI at scale in global health.

 

AI in Global Health:Explores the current state of the art of AI in healthcare to determine use cases with the highest potential in the global health contextAssesses the most critical challenges to scaling AI in low- and middle-income countries to understand which barriers may require more strategic and deliberate interventionExplores potential investments as part of a coordinated approach to funding this space effectively

 

Continue reading
Tags:
32 Hits
0 Comments

Grant opportunities from Bill & Melinda Gates foundation and partners

BMGF-GGC-image

Above: Photo Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Grand Challenges 

 

 

The application period for Grand Challenges Explorations is still open, and there are new Grand Challenges and related global health grant opportunities now open as well:

Grand Challenges Explorations

Continue reading
Tags:
30 Hits
0 Comments

INFUSE 2019: Calling on innovators with solutions for immunizing in complex urban, developing country settings

Jalousie-Port_au_Prince-Haiti-2016

Above: Photo by Gavi/2016/Rachel Belt

 

In 2019, INFUSE is looking for innovations uniquely positioned to address immunisation challenges in urban settings. Through this call, Gavi is seeking innovations that aim to address the specific challenges involved in assuring that children living in urban areas are reached with immunisation.

 

In 2018, 55% of the world’s population lived in urban settings. By 2050, this figure is expected to rise to almost 70%. This rapid growth will add nearly 2.5 billion people to urban areas, with 90% of the expansion occurring in Asia and Africa.

Continue reading
Tags:
39 Hits
0 Comments

Sepsis Guidelines

by Angela X Chen, M.B., B.S., M.P.H.; Steven Q. Simpson, M.D.; and Daniel J. Pallin, M.D., M.P.H.

Published in The New England Journal of Medicine, 04 April 2019. 

 

This interactive feature about the initial management of suspected sepsis offers a case vignette, accompanied by essays that either support or discourage the implementation of a 1-hour bundle for the management of sepsis and septic shock. Disclosure forms provided by the author are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.

 

Continue reading
18 Hits
0 Comments

Rapid phenotypic evolution in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae hospital outbreak strains

by van Dorp L, Wang Q, Shaw LP, Acman M, Brynildsrud OB, Eldholm V, Wang R, Gao H, Yin Y, Chen H, Ding C, Farrer RA, Didelot X, Balloux F, Wang H

Published in Microbial Genomics, 02 April 2019.

 

 

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) increasingly cause high-mortality outbreaks in hospital settings globally. Following a patient fatality at a hospital in Beijing due to a blaKPC-2-positive CRKP infection, close monitoring was put in place over the course of 14 months to characterize all blaKPC-2-positive CRKP in circulation in the hospital. Whole genome sequences were generated for 100 isolates from blaKPC-2-positive isolates from infected patients, carriers and the hospital environment. Phylogenetic analyses identified a closely related cluster of 82 sequence type 11 (ST11) isolates circulating in the hospital for at least a year prior to admission of the index patient. The majority of inferred transmissions for these isolates involved patients in intensive care units. Whilst the 82 ST11 isolates collected during the surveillance effort all had closely related chromosomes, researchers observed extensive diversity in their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes. The study team was able to reconstruct the major genomic changes underpinning this variation in AMR profiles, including multiple gains and losses of entire plasmids and recombination events between plasmids, including transposition of blaKPC-2. They also identified specific cases where variation in plasmid copy number correlated with the level of phenotypic resistance to drugs, suggesting that the number of resistance elements carried by a strain may play a role in determining the level of AMR. Study findings highlight the epidemiological value of whole genome sequencing for investigating multi-drug-resistant hospital infections and illustrate that standard typing schemes cannot capture the extraordinarily fast genome evolution of CRKP isolates.

Continue reading
10 Hits
0 Comments

Combination of clinical symptoms and blood biomarkers can improve discrimination between bacterial or viral community-acquired pneumonia in children

by Bhuiyan MU, Blyth CC, West R, Lang J, Rahman T, Granland C, de Gier C, Borland ML, Thornton RB, Kirkham LS, Martin A, Richmond PC, Smith DW, Jaffe A, Snelling TL

Published in BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 02 April 2019. 

 

 

Differentiating bacterial from viral pneumonia is important for guiding targeted management and judicious use of antibiotics. Researchers assessed if clinical characteristics and blood inflammatory biomarkers could be used to distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia. 

Continue reading
7 Hits
0 Comments

Molecular characterization and epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 24F in Denmark

by Kavalari ID, Fuursted K, Krogfelt KA, Slotved HC

Published in Scientific Reports, 02 April 2019

 

Since 2012, Denmark has observed an increase of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 24F. Researchers present epidemiological data on 24F IPD cases, and characterization of 48 24F clinical isolates based on clonal relationship, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants and virulence factors. IPD surveillance data from (1999-2016) were used to calculate the incidence and age-distribution of serotype 24F IPD and the effect of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV). Characterization of forty-eight 24F isolates (14.7% of all 24F isolates from the period) was based on whole-genome sequencing analysis (WGS). The IPD cases of serotype 24F showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) for all age groups after the PCV-13 introduction in 2010. The majority of tested 24F isolates consisted of two MLST types, i.e. the ST72 and the ST162. Serotype 24F IPD increased in Denmark after the PCV-13 introduction in parallel with an increase of the ST162 clone. The genotypic penicillin binding protein (PBP) profile agreed with the phenotypical penicillin susceptibility. The virulence genes lytA, ply, piaA, piaB, piaC, rspB and the cpsA/wzg were detected in all 24F isolates, while the pspA and zmpC genes were absent.

 

Continue reading
Tags:
8 Hits
0 Comments

Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia: diagnosis and management in the emergency department

by Cooper-Sood J, Wallihan R, Naprawa J

Published in Pediatric Emergency Medical Practice, April 2019. 

 

Worldwide, pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children aged < 5 years. Distinguishing viral from bacterial causes of pneumonia is paramount to providing effective treatment but remains a significant challenge. For patients who can be managed with outpatient treatment, the utility of laboratory tests and radiographic studies, as well as the need for empiric antibiotics, remains questionable. This issue reviews viral and bacterial etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia in pediatric patients, offers guidance for obtaining historical information and interpreting physical examination findings, discusses the utility of various diagnostic techniques, and provides recommendations for the treatment of previously healthy and medically fragile children.

 

Continue reading
15 Hits
0 Comments