Delayed Diagnosis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Hospitalized Adults: Individual Patient Data, Record Review Analysis and Physician Survey in the United States

By Nelson Lee,  Edward E Walsh,  Ian Sander,  Robert Stolper,  Jessica Zakar, Veronique Wyffels,  David Myers,  Roman Fleischhackl

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, To be published September 15, 2019

 

Despite the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in adults hospitalized with acute respiratory infections, guidelines for the diagnosis and management of RSV have not been established. This analysis evaluated the role and timeliness of RSV diagnostic testing and its potential impact on clinical outcomes.

We analyzed individual patient data from hospitalized adults with confirmed RSV infections during 2 North American RSV seasons. Participating physicians reported clinical, virologic diagnosis, and outcome variables using a standardized online case form.

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The Laminin Interactome: A Multifactorial Laminin-Binding Strategy by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae for Effective Adherence and Colonization

By Yu-Ching Su,  Emma Mattsson,  Birendra Singh,  Farshid Jalalvand,  Timothy F Murphy, Kristian Riesbeck

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, To be published September 15, 2019

 

Laminin is a well-defined component of the airway basement membrane (BM). Efficient binding of laminin via multiple interactions is important for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) colonization in the airway mucosa. In this study, we identified elongation factor thermo-unstable (EF-Tu), l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein D (PD), and peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein P6 as novel laminin-binding proteins (Lbps) of NTHi. In parallel with other well-studied Lbps (protein 4 [P4], protein E [PE], protein F [PF], and Haemophilus adhesion and penetration protein [Hap]), EF-Tu, LDH, PD, and P6 exhibited interactions with laminin, and mediated NTHi laminin-dependent adherence to pulmonary epithelial cell lines. More importantly, the NTHi laminin interactome consisting of the well-studied and novel Lbps recognized laminin LG domains from the subunit α chains of laminin-111 and -332, the latter isoform of which is the main laminin in the airway BM. The NTHi interactome mainly targeted multiple heparin-binding domains of laminin. In conclusion, the NTHi interactome exhibited a high plasticity of interactions with different laminin isoforms via multiple heparin-binding sites.

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Dual and Triple Infections With Influenza A and B Viruses: A Case-Control Study in Southern Brazil

By Tatiana Schäffer Gregianini,  Ivana R Santos Varella,  Patricia Fisch,  Letícia Garay Martins, Ana B G Veiga

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, To be published September 15, 2019

 

Influenza surveillance is important for disease control and should consider possible coinfection with different viruses, which can be associated with disease severity. This study analyzed 34 459 patients with respiratory infection from 2009 to 2018, of whom 8011 were positive for influenza A virus (IAV) or influenza B virus (IBV). We found 18 cases of dual influenza virus infection, including coinfection with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus (A[H1N1]pdm09) and influenza A(H3N2) virus (1 case), A(H1N1)pdm09 and IBV (6 cases), A(H3N2) and IBV (8 cases), and nonsubtyped IAV and IBV (3 cases); and 1 case of triple infection with A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09, and IBV. Compared with 76 monoinfected patients, coinfection was significantly associated with cardiopathy and death. Besides demographic characteristics and clinical symptoms, we assessed vaccination status, antiviral treatment, timeliness of antiviral use, hospitalization, and intensive care unit admission, but no significant differences were found between coinfected and monoinfected cases. Our findings indicate that influenza virus coinfection occurs more often than previously reported and that it can lead to a worse disease outcome.

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Infant Pneumococcal Carriage During Influenza, RSV, and hMPV Respiratory Illness Within a Maternal Influenza Immunization Trial

By Alastair F Murray,  Janet A Englund,  Jane Kuypers,  James M Tielsch,  Joanne Katz, Subarna K Khatry,  Steven C Leclerq,  Helen Y Chu

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, To be published September 15, 2019

 

In this post-hoc analysis of midnasal pneumococcal carriage in a community-based, randomized prenatal influenza vaccination trial in Nepal with weekly infant respiratory illness surveillance, 457 of 605 (75.5%) infants with influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), or human metapneumovirus (hMPV) illness had pneumococcus detected. Pneumococcal carriage did not impact rates of lower respiratory tract disease for these 3 viruses. Influenza-positive infants born to mothers given influenza vaccine had lower pneumococcal carriage rates compared to influenza-positive infants born to mothers receiving placebo (58.1% versus 71.6%, P = 0.03). Maternal influenza immunization may impact infant acquisition of pneumococcus during influenza infection.

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WSPID 2019

WSPID-201_20190816-171750_1
NAPOLEON GONZALEZ WORLD LECTURELESSONS LEARNED FROM AFRICA – Elizabeth Molyneux (Malawi/UK)SPECIAL LECTUREELIMINATION OF MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HIV: LESSONS LEARNED FROM SUCCESS IN THAILAND – Usa Thisyakorn (Thailand)WSPID SYMPOSIAInnovation in Infectious DiseasesDengue: A Global ThreatPertussis SymposiumEmerging ID Challenges in the Five ContinentsControversies in HIVPneumococcal SymposiumAntimicrobial Stewardship into the 2020sMalaria in Pregnant Women and ChildrenID in the ImmunocompromisedNeonatal SepsisPediatric Fungal Infections: Something New?Controversies in PneumoniaDebates in Diarrheal DiseaseTropical DiseasesTuberculosisEmerging Issues and Controversies on Group A Streptococcus and S Aureus Infections in ChildrenVaccines and Immunization: What Pediatricians Need to Know‘Hot’ papers in the field of Pediatric Infectiouse Diseases 2017-2019WSPID INTERACTIVE SYMPOSIAInteractive Symposium on Challenging CasesInfection Prevention and Control in Low-Resource SettingsMEET THE PROFESSOR SESSIONSCNS InfectionsBone InfectionsOtitis MediaClinical Research and Life BalanceKawasaki DiseaseMeningitisHaemophilus influenzaeSkin InfectionsEbolaWORKSHOPSWSPID Research Workshop (by invitation only)INTRODUCTION, OVERVIEW AND GOALS – Andi L. Shane (USA) and Salvacion R. Gatchalian, (Philippines)INTRODUCTION FROM THE LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE – Salvacion R. Gatchalian (Philippines)FROM CLINICAL QUESTION TO RESEARCH QUESTION – Maria Liza Antoinette M. Gonzales (Philippines)INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH COLLABORATIONS – David Burgner (Australia)PUBLISHING YOUR RESEARCH – Nigel Curtis (Australia)ETHICS IN RESEARCH – Jacinto Blas V. Mantaring III (Philippines)FINDING FUNDING AND KEY PARTS OF A RESEARCH BUDGET – Anna Lena Lopez (Philippines)WRITING A SUCCESSFUL GRANT APPLICATION – Rosemarie Arciaga (Philippines)WSPID Workshop 1 – Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: Improving Clinical Indications, avoiding Pitfalls

Chairs – Juan Pablo Torres (Chile) and Daniel Jarovsky (Brazil)

Moderator – Jaime Santos (Philippines)

IMMUNOLOGIC TESTS FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES – Daniel Jarovsky (Brazil)NUCLEIC ACID-BASED IDENTIFICATION METHODS – Juan Pablo Torres (Chile)RAPID NON-NUCLEIC ACID-BASED IDENTIFICATION METHODS – Fátima Gimenez (Philippines)WSPID Workshop 2 – Migration and Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Chairs – Lilly Verhagen (The Netherlands) and Rosemary Olivero (USA)

INTRODUCTIONTHE INFECTIOUS DISEASE IMPLICATIONS OF VENEZUELA’S MIGRATION CRISIS – Jacobus de Waard (Venezuela)INFECTIOUS DISEASE IMPLICATIONS IN REFUGEE AND MIGRANT CHILDRENWORLD CAFE

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The Persistence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Types 3, 19A, and 19F in the UK Adult Population

By Mary Slack,  Andrew Vyse,  Harish Madhava,  Gillian Ellsbury,  Carole Czudek, Rene Reinert,  Brad Gessner,  Luis Jodar

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, August 15, 2019

 

To the Editor—Using nasal wash samples and conventional microbiological cultures, Adler et al [1] detected pneumococcal colonization in 6.6% of healthy adult study participants (28 of 427), sampled 5 years after the introduction of infant immunization with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in the United Kingdom. Although the majority were non-PCV13 (nonvaccine type) serotypes, 3 PCV13 (vaccine type [VT]) serotypes (3, 19A, and 19F) were detected, serotype 3 being the most common VT identified (in 5 of 28 participants [17.9%]). The study participants were nonsmokers without major comorbid conditions or contact with children <5 years old.

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Association of Age at First Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease With Subsequent Risk of Severe Asthma: A Population-Based Cohort Study

By Nusrat Homaira,  Nancy Briggs,  Ju-Lee Oei,  Lisa Hilder,  Barbara Bajuk,  Adam Jaffe, Saad B Omer

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, August 15, 2019

 

In a population-based cohort study, we determined the association between the age at first severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease and subsequent asthma.

Incidence rates and rate ratios of the first asthma-associated hospitalization after 2 years of age in children hospitalized for RSV disease at <3 months, 3 to <6 months, 6 to <12 months, and 12–24 months of age were calculated.

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Double-Edged Role of Interleukin 17A in Streptococcus pneumoniae Pathogenesis During Influenza Virus Coinfection

By Ganesh Ambigapathy,  Taylor Schmit,  Ram Kumar Mathur,  Suba Nookala,  Saad Bahri, Liise-anne Pirofski,  M Nadeem Khan

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, September 1, 2019

 

We sought to determine the role of host interleukin 17A (IL-17A) response against colonizing Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its transition to a pathogen during coinfection with an influenza virus, influenza A H1N1 A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8).

Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were intranasally inoculated with S. pneumoniae serotype 6A to establish colonization and later infected with the influenza strain, PR8, resulting in invasive S. pneumoniae disease. The role of the IL-17A response in colonization and coinfection was investigated in WT, RoRγt−/− and RAG1−/− mice with antibody-mediated depletion of IL-17A (WT) and CD90 cells (RAG1−/−).

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Birth Cohort Effects in Influenza Surveillance Data: Evidence That First Influenza Infection Affects Later Influenza-Associated Illness

By Alicia P Budd,  Lauren Beacham,  Catherine B Smith,  Rebecca J Garten,  Carrie Reed, Krista Kniss,  Desiree Mustaquim,  Farida B Ahmad,  Charisse N Cummings,  Shikha Garg, Min Z Levine,  Alicia M Fry,  Lynnette Brammer

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, September 1, 2019

 

The evolution of influenza A viruses results in birth cohorts that have different initial influenza virus exposures. Historically, A/H3 predominant seasons have been associated with more severe influenza-associated disease; however, since the 2009 pandemic, there are suggestions that some birth cohorts experience more severe illness in A/H1 predominant seasons.

United States influenza virologic, hospitalization, and mortality surveillance data during 2000–2017 were analyzed for cohorts born between 1918 and 1989 that likely had different initial influenza virus exposures based on viruses circulating during early childhood. Relative risk/rate during H3 compared with H1 predominant seasons during prepandemic versus pandemic and later periods were calculated for each cohort.

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Standard-Dose Intradermal Influenza Vaccine Elicits Cellular Immune Responses Similar to Those of Intramuscular Vaccine in Men With and Those Without HIV Infection

By Samuel Amoah,  Margarita Mishina,  Prabda Praphasiri,  Weiping Cao,  Jin Hyang Kim, Justine S Liepkalns,  Zhu Guo,  Paul J Carney,  Jessie C Chang,  Stefan Fernandez, Shikha Garg,  Lauren Beacham,  Timothy H Holtz,  Marcel E Curlin,  Fatimah Dawood, Sonja J Olsen,  Shivaprakash Gangappa,  James Stevens,  Suryaprakash Sambhara

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, September 1, 2019

 

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected persons are at a higher risk of severe influenza. Although we have shown that a standard-dose intradermal influenza vaccine versus a standard-dose intramuscular influenza vaccine does not result in differences in hemagglutination-inhibition titers in this population, a comprehensive examination of cell-mediated immune responses remains lacking.

Serological, antigen-specific B-cell, and interleukin 2–, interferon γ–, and tumor necrosis factor α–secreting T-cell responses were assessed in 79 HIV-infected men and 79 HIV-uninfected men.

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Deep Learning in Medicine—Promise, Progress, and Challenges

By Fei Wang, Lawrence Peter Casalino, and Dhruv Khullar

JAMA Network Open, December 17, 2018

 

Recent years have seen a surge of interest in machine learning and artificial intelligence techniques in health care.1 Deep learning2 represents the latest iteration in a progression of artificial intelligence technologies that have allowed machines to mimic human intelligence in increasingly sophisticated and independent ways.3 Early medical artificial intelligence systems relied heavily on experts to train computers by encoding clinical knowledge as logic rules for specific clinical scenarios. More advanced machine learning systems train themselves to learn these rules by identifying and weighing relevant features from the data, such as pixels from medical images, or raw information from electronic health records (EHRs).

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Making Machine Learning Models Clinically Useful

By Nigam H. Shah, Arnold Milstein, and Steven C. Bagley

JAMA Network Open, August 8, 2019

 

Recent advances in supervised machine learning have improved diagnostic accuracy and prediction of treatment outcomes, in some cases surpassing the performance of clinicians.1 In supervised machine learning, a mathematical function is constructed via automated analysis of training data, which consists of input features (such as retinal images) and output labels (such as the grade of macular edema). With large training data sets and minimal human guidance, a computer learns to generalize from the information contained in the training data. The result is a mathematical function, a model, that can be used to map a new record to the corresponding diagnosis, such as an image to grade macular edema. Although machine learning–based models for classification or for predicting a future health state are being developed for diverse clinical applications, evidence is lacking that deployment of these models has improved care and patient outcomes.2

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Procalcitonin and lung ultrasonography point-of-care testing to decide on antibiotic prescription in patients with lower respiratory tract infection in primary care: protocol of a pragmatic cluster randomized trial.

By Loïc Lhopitallier, Andreas Kronenberg, Jean-Yves Meuwly, Isabella Locatelli, Julie Dubois, Joachim Marti, Yolanda Mueller, Nicolas Senn, Valérie D’Acremont, and Noémie Boillat-Blanco

BMC Pulmonary Medicine. August 6, 2019.

 

A minority of patients presenting with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) to their general practitioner (GP) have community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and require antibiotic therapy. Identifying them is challenging, because of overlapping symptomatology and low diagnostic performance of chest X-ray. Procalcitonin (PCT) can be safely used to decide on antibiotic prescription in patients with LRTI. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is effective in detecting lung consolidation in pneumonia and might compensate for the lack of specificity of PCT. We hypothesize that combining PCT and LUS, available as point-of care tests (POCT), might reduce antibiotic prescription in LRTIs without impacting patient safety in the primary care setting.

This is a three-arm pragmatic cluster randomized controlled clinical trial. GPs are randomized either to PCT and LUS-guided antibiotic therapy or to PCT only-guided therapy or to usual care. Consecutive adult patients with an acute cough due to a respiratory infection will be screened and included if they present a clinical pneumonia as defined by European guidelines. Exclusion criteria are previous antibiotics for the current episode, working diagnosis of sinusitis, severe underlying lung disease, severe immunosuppression, hospital admission, pregnancy, inability to provide informed consent and unavailability of the GP. Patients will fill in a 28 day-symptom diary and will be contacted by phone on days 7 and 28. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients prescribed any antibiotic up to day 28. Secondary outcomes include clinical failure by day 7 (death, admission to hospital, absence of amelioration or worsening of relevant symptoms) and by day 28, duration of restricted daily activities, episode duration as defined by symptom score, number of medical visits, number of days with side effects due to antibiotics and a composite outcome combining death, admission to hospital and complications due to LRTI by day 28. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness and of processes in the clinic using a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach will also be conducted.

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Excess Antibiotic Treatment Duration and Adverse Events in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia: A Multihospital Cohort Study

By Valerie M. Vaughn, Scott A. Flanders, Ashley Snyder, Anna Conlon, Mary A.M. Rogers, Anurag N. Malani, Elizabeth McLaughlin, Sarah Bloemers, Arjun Srinivasan, Jerod Nagel, Scott Kaatz, Danielle Osterholzer, Rama Thyagarajan, Lama Hsaiky, Vineet Chopra, Tejal N. Gandhi

Annals of Internal Medicine, August 6, 2019

 

Randomized trials demonstrate no benefit from antibiotic treatment exceeding the shortest effective duration.The primary outcome was the rate of excess antibiotic treatment duration (excess days per 30-day period). Excess days were calculated by subtracting each patient's shortest effective (expected) treatment duration (based on time to clinical stability, pathogen, and pneumonia classification [community-acquired vs. health care–associated]) from the actual duration. Negative binomial generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to calculate rate ratios to assess predictors of 30-day rates of excess duration. Patient outcomes, assessed at 30 days via the medical record and telephone calls, were evaluated using logit GEEs that adjusted for patient characteristics and probability of treatment.

Two thirds (67.8% [4391 of 6481]) of patients received excess antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics prescribed at discharge accounted for 93.2% of excess duration. Patients who had respiratory cultures or nonculture diagnostic testing, had a longer stay, received a high-risk antibiotic in the prior 90 days, had community-acquired pneumonia, or did not have a total antibiotic treatment duration documented at discharge were more likely to receive excess treatment. Excess treatment was not associated with lower rates of any adverse outcomes, including death, readmission, emergency department visit, or Clostridioides difficile infection. Each excess day of treatment was associated with a 5% increase in the odds of antibiotic-associated adverse events reported by patients after discharge.

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Exploratory meeting to review new evidence for Integrated Management of Childhood Illness danger signs

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The World Health Organization, August 1, 2019

 

For children up to 5 years of age with common childhood illnesses, WHO’s IMCI strategy recommends using clinical signs for diagnosis, treatment and place-of-treatment decisions. In order to increase access to pneumonia treatment, in 2014 WHO revised pneumonia management guidance within IMCI. It now recommends that lower chest indrawing, which previously required hospitalization along with other referral clinical signs considered as danger signs for injectable antibiotics, be treated with oral amoxicillin on an outpatient basis in settings with low HIV prevalence. These danger signs include convulsions; unable to drink; unconscious or drowsy; vomiting everything; stiff neck; severe dehydration; stridor in a calm child; oedema on both feet; weight for height (WHZ) Z-score less than - 3 SD or mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) less than 115 mm; severe palmar pallor; clouding of the cornea in a child with measles, and tender swelling behind the ear in a child with an ear problem.

 

However, a recent retrospective analysis of data from hospitalized children in Kenya showed that mortality was high among children with mild to moderate palmar pallor, WAZ less than - 3 SD and lower chest indrawing. This finding raised concerns that these children should be treated on an inpatient basis despite the revised guidelines. In order to evaluate the implications of this new evidence and other data and to identify questions for future research, a two-day exploratory meeting of pneumonia research experts, epidemiologists and child health specialists/paediatricians from a range of countries with varying resources was convened in Geneva, Switzerland, on 4–5 September 2018.

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Effect of a Russian-backbone live-attenuated influenza vaccine with an updated pandemic H1N1 strain on shedding and immunogenicity among children in The Gambia: an open-label, observational, phase 4 study

By Benjamin B Lindsey, Ya Jankey Jagne, Edwin P Armitage, Anika Singanayagam, Hadijatou J Sallah, Sainabou Drammeh, Elina Senghore, Nuredin I Mohammed, David Jeffries, Katja Höschler, John S Tregoning, Adam Meijer, Ed Clarke, Prof Tao Dong, Prof Wendy Barclay, Prof Beate Kampmann, Thushan I de Silva

The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, August 1, 2019

 

The efficacy and effectiveness of the pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) component in live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is poor. The reasons for this paucity are unclear but could be due to impaired replicative fitness of pH1N1 A/California/07/2009-like (Cal09) strains. We assessed whether an updated pH1N1 strain in the Russian-backbone trivalent LAIV resulted in greater shedding and immunogenicity compared with LAIV with Cal09.

We did an open-label, prospective, observational, phase 4 study in Sukuta, a periurban area in The Gambia. We enrolled children aged 24–59 months who were clinically well. Children received one dose of the WHO prequalified Russian-backbone trivalent LAIV containing either A/17/California/2009/38 (Cal09) or A/17/New York/15/5364 (NY15) based on their year of enrolment. Primary outcomes were the percentage of children with LAIV strain shedding at day 2 and day 7, haemagglutinin inhibition seroconversion, and an increase in influenza haemagglutinin-specific IgA and T-cell responses at day 21 after LAIV. This study is nested within a randomised controlled trial investigating LAIV–microbiome interactions (NCT02972957).

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Early Clinical Response in Community-acquired Bacterial Pneumonia: From Clinical Endpoint to Clinical Practice

By Julio A Ramirez,  Evan Tzanis,  Marla Curran,  Robert Noble,  Surya Chitra,  Amy Manley, Courtney Kirsch,  Paul C McGovern

Clinical Infectious Diseases, August 1, 2019

 

Early clinical response (ECR) is a new endpoint to determine whether a drug should be approved for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in the United States. The Omadacycline for Pneumonia Treatment In the Community (OPTIC) phase III study demonstrated noninferiority of omadacycline to moxifloxacin using this endpoint. This study describes the performance of the ECR endpoint and clinical stability relative to a posttreatment evaluation (PTE) of clinical success.

ECR was defined as symptom improvement 72–120 hours after the first dose of study drug (ECR window), no use of rescue antibiotics, and patient survival. Clinical success at PTE was an investigator assessment of success. Clinical stability was defined based on vital sign stabilization, described in the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America community-acquired pneumonia treatment guidelines.

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Exploratory meeting to review new evidence for Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) danger signs

The World Health Organization, August 1, 2019

 

For children up to 5 years of age with common childhood illnesses, WHO’s IMCI strategy recommends using clinical signs for diagnosis, treatment and place-of-treatment decisions. In order to increase access to pneumonia treatment, in 2014 WHO revised pneumonia management guidance within IMCI. It now recommends that lower chest indrawing, which previously required hospitalization along with other referral clinical signs considered as danger signs for injectable antibiotics, be treated with oral amoxicillin on an outpatient basis in settings with low HIV prevalence. These danger signs include convulsions; unable to drink; unconscious or drowsy; vomiting everything; stiff neck; severe dehydration; stridor in a calm child; oedema on both feet; weight for height (WHZ) Z-score less than - 3 SD or mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) less than 115 mm; severe palmar pallor; clouding of the cornea in a child with measles, and tender swelling behind the ear in a child with an ear problem.

However, a recent retrospective analysis of data from hospitalized children in Kenya showed that mortality was high among children with mild to moderate palmar pallor, WAZ less than - 3 SD and lower chest indrawing. This finding raised concerns that these children should be treated on an inpatient basis despite the revised guidelines. In order to evaluate the implications of this new evidence and other data and to identify questions for future research, a two-day exploratory meeting of pneumonia research experts, epidemiologists and child health specialists/paediatricians from a range of countries with varying resources was convened in Geneva, Switzerland, on 4–5 September 2018.

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Fighting for breath: how we can win the battle against childhood pneumonia

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Photo above, by ALAMY. Article written by Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus

"Most people reading this article will think of pneumonia as a threat to the lives of elderly people in rich countries. We invite you to think again. Today, pneumonia is the single biggest killer of children in developing countries - and it is time for the international community to come together and combat the disease

Pneumonia claims the lives of more than 800,000 children every year, making it the biggest infectious killer of under-fives. Almost all these fatalities are preventable. Yet with relentless predictability, the death-toll continues – claiming more than 100 young lives every hour. 

Most of the victims are less than two years old. Every death leaves grieving parents forced to watch helplessly as their children fight for breath against a disease that attacks their lungs and starves their bodies of oxygen. 

Stopping pneumonia is not a complex scientific challenge. Effective vaccines can prevent the most common causes of the disease. Early and accurate diagnosis, followed by treatment with a three-day course of antibiotics costing just 25 cents would cure most cases. For children with more severe cases, treatment with oxygen and higher levels of antibiotics offer a route to recovery..." 

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August 2019 Member Newsletter

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Above photo by Jonathan Hyams / Save the Children. Dr Partha Pratim Das attends to Sohai*, two, on the inpatient ward at Save the Children’s primary healthcare centre (PHCC) in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. His mother, Laila*, brought Sohai to the PHCC when he had difficulty breathing. He was immediately admitted as an emergency case of acute pneumonia.

 

A COMMENT FROM THE COORDINATOR

 

This newsletter is about pneumonia treatment guidelines.  We are happy to share a new blog post from Dr. Todd Florin who discusses his approach to research aimed at improving pneumonia treatment for children.

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