Invasive Pneumococcal and Meningococcal Disease

By Fitzgerald D, Waterer GW

 

Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, December 2019

 

This review focuses on current knowledge of the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of invasive pneumococcal (IPD) and meningococcal disease (IMD). IPD decreased significantly with the introduction of effective conjugate vaccines but is on the rise again. Effective antibiotic therapy of IPD includes the combination of a beta-lactam and a macrolide with additional considerations in meningitis. Steroids are mandatory in pneumococcal meningitis but not indicated in pneumococcal pneumonia except in the setting of refractory shock. There is increasing concern about the cardiovascular complications of IPD. IMD continues to be a significant health problem with major concerns about rising antibiotic resistance.

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Antibiotic-Resistant Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

By Jeffery Ho and Margaret Ip

Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, December, 2019

Antimicrobial resistance is a global concern, and prudent use of antibiotics is essential to preserve the current armamentarium of effective drugs. Acute respiratory tract infection is the most common reason for antibiotic prescription in adults. In particular, community-acquired pneumonia poses a significant health challenge and economic burden globally, especially in the current landscape of a dense and aging population. By updating the knowledge on the common antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in community-acquired respiratory tract infections, their prevalence, and resistance may pave the way to enhancing appropriate antibiotic use in the ambulatory and health care setting.

 

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Comprehensive Detection of Respiratory Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in the Middle Ear Fluid and Nasopharynx of Pediatric Patients With Acute Otitis Media

By Sawada, Shoichi M.,Okutani, Fumino, Kobayashi, Taisuke.

 

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, December 2019

 

Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common ear infection caused by respiratory viruses and bacteria of the nasopharynx. The present study aimed to detect various respiratory viruses and bacteria in middle ear fluid (MEF) and nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

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Place of death, care-seeking and care pathway progression in the final illnesses of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

By Jessica Price, Joseph Lee, Merlin Willcox, and Anthony Harnden

 

Journal of Global Health, December, 2019

 

Half of all under-5 deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing child mortality requires understanding of the modifiable factors that contribute to death. Social autopsies collect information about place of death, care-seeking and care-provision, but this has not been pooled to learn wider lessons. We therefore undertook a systematic review to collect, evaluate, map, and pool all the available evidence for sub-Saharan Africa.

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A New Way of Managing Pediatric Pneumonia

By McIntosh K

Clinical Infectious Diseases, December, 2019

 

Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in infants and children <5 years of age have been a target of the World Health Organization (WHO) since the early 1970s. In 1981, a position paper written by an interested group of experts appeared in the Bulletin of the WHO that summarized the scope of the problem and outlined possible approaches to management [1]. By that time, the WHO oral rehydration therapy (ORT) program had already been launched (1980), and childhood mortality from diarrhea was falling dramatically. 

 

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