Rhinovirus Species in Children With Severe Bronchiolitis: Multicenter Cohort Studies in the United States and Finland

by Kohei Hasegawa, MD, MPH; Tuomas Jartti, MD; Yury A. Bochkov, PhD; James E. Gern, MD; Jonathan M. Mansbach, MD, MPH; Pedro A. Piedra, MD; Laura Toivonen, MD, PhD; and Carlos A. Camargo, Jr., MD, DrPH

To be published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, March 2019. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002141

 

 

Bronchiolitis is an important public health problem in the United States and worldwide. In the United States, bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalizations in infants, accounting for approximately 130,000 hospitalizations each year. In addition to the large acute disease burden, cohort studies have also demonstrated substantial chronic morbidity, with 30%–40% of children with severe bronchiolitis (bronchiolitis requiring hospitalization) developing childhood asthma.

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Assessment and Validation of Syndromic Case Definitions for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Testing in a Low Resource Population

by Saad B. Omer, PhD; Robert Bednarczyk, PhD; Momin Kazi, MBBS; Beryl L. Guterman, MSPH; Fatmia Aziz, MBBS; Kristen E. Allen, MPH; Inci Yildirim, PhD; and S. Asad Ali, MBBS

To be published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, March 2019. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002159

 

 

Respiratory syncitial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory infections, particularly among young infants. Vaccine candidates are being developed for maternal immunization to protect infants against RSV. Decision-making regarding RSV vaccination strategies will require community-based surveillance in a variety of populations. Robust surveillance systems require laboratory testing, which is not available in low-resource settings, and, more importantly, a credible case definition. For RSV, one has yet to be developed. Previous attempts have relied on retrospective data and/or focused on facility-based cases.

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Pneumocystis Infection in Children: National Trends and Characteristics in the United States, 1997–2012

by Kengo Inagaki, MD; Chad Blackshear, MS; and Charlotte V. Hobbs, MD

To be published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, March 2019. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002119

 

 

Although the epidemiology of immunocompromising condition in children has evolved over time, updated epidemiology of pediatric pneumocystis infection in the United States is not available.

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Risk Factors for Severe Community-aquired Pneumonia Among Children Hospitalized With CAP Younger Than 5 Years of Age

by Shan, Wei, MPH; Shi, Ting, MD; Chen, Kaile, MPH; Xue, Jian, MD; Wang, Yin, MPH; Yu, Jia, MPH; Zhao, Genming, PhD; Tian, Jianmei, MD; and Zhang, Tao, PhD

To be published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, March 2019. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002098

 

 

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes great morbidity and mortality as well as enormous economic burden worldwide. This study intended to describe the clinical characteristics of CAP and explore the risk factors of severe CAP among children in downtown Suzhou, China.

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Global Case-Fatality Rates in Pediatric Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

by Bobby Tan, BSc, MD; Judith Ju-Ming Wong, MBBCh, BAO, MRCPCH; Rehena Sultana, MSc; et al

Published in JAMA Pediatrics, 11 February 2019. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4839

 

 

The global patterns and distribution of case-fatality rates (CFRs) in pediatric severe sepsis and septic shock remain poorly described. Researchers performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of children with severe sepsis and septic shock to elucidate the patterns of CFRs in developing and developed countries over time. They also described factors associated with CFRs.

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