Pneumococcal carriage in vaccine-eligible children and unvaccinated infants in Lao PDR two years following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

by Catherine Satzke, Eileen M. Dunne, Molina Choummanivong, Belinda D. Ortika, Eleanor F. G. Neal, Casey L. Pell, Monica L. Nation, Kimberley K. Fox, Cattram D. Nguyen, Katherine A. Gould, Jason Hinds, Anisone Chanthongthip, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, E. Kim Mulholland, Vanphanom Sychareun, and Fiona M. Russell

Published in Vaccine, January 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.10.077

 

 

Pneumococcal carriage is a prerequisite for disease, and underpins herd protection provided by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). There are few data on the impact of PCVs in lower income settings, particularly in Asia.

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The efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in Africa: a systematic review

by Benjamin B Lindsey, MBBS; Edwin P Armitage, BMBS; Prof Beate Kampmann, PhD; and Thushan I de Silva, PhD

Published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, January 2019. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30490-0

 

The burden of influenza in Africa is substantial and underappreciated. Although surveillance has increased, the medical community's understanding of seasonal influenza vaccine performance remains limited. We did a systematic review, using PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42017058107), on the efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations within Africa with the aim of identifying key data gaps to help direct future research. We searched Embase, MEDLINE, Global Health database, and Web of Science for published studies from database inception to May 9, 2018. Unpublished studies were identified by searching ClinicalTrials.gov and the Pan-African Clinical Trial Registry, and by contacting experts within the field. Human studies that reported influenza vaccine immunogenicity, effectiveness, and efficacy were included. 1746 articles were assessed and 23 articles were included. Only three of the 23 studies were of high quality and many studies were underpowered. All 23 studies came from only six African countries (16 from South Africa), highlighting the need for data from a broader range of African populations. The majority of studies focused on effectiveness or efficacy against laboratory supported influenza with limited data for severe outcomes. Several factors known to interfere with influenza immunisation, such as malaria, HIV, and malnutrition were under-represented in this Review and require further study. Substantial gaps exist in our understanding of influenza vaccine performance across all WHO high-risk groups in Africa. Filling these knowledge gaps is vital to guide future influenza vaccine policies.

 

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Antimicrobial resistance and the role of vaccines

by David E. Bloom, Steven Black, David Salisbury, and Rino Rappuoli

Published in PNAS, 18 December 2018. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1717157115

 

Rising antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the greatest health challenges the world currently faces. Resistant pathogens, including viruses, parasites, fungi, and especially bacteria cause significant morbidity and mortality. For example, antibiotic resistance is estimated to cause 33,000 deaths annually in the European Union and European Economic Area, at least 23,000 deaths annually in the United States, and at least 38,000 deaths annually in Thailand. Furthermore, resistant bacteria reportedly caused the deaths of more than 58,000 babies in India in 1 y. One estimate places current global annual deaths from AMR at a minimum of 700,000.

 

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Effectiveness of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against vaccine type invasive pneumococcal disease in Pakistan

by Riaz A, Mohiuddin S, Husain S, Yousafzai MT, Muhammad S, Kabir F, Ur Rehman N, Mirza W, Salam B, Nadeem N, Pardhan K, Khan KMA, Raza SJ, Arif F, Iqbal K, Zuberi HK, Whitney CG, Omer SB, Zaidi AKM, Ali A; Pakistan Pneumococcal Vaccine Study Group.

Published in the International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 18 Dec 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2018.12.007

 

 

This study aimed to assess PCV10 effectiveness against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) due to vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) post introduction of vaccine in routine immunization program of Pakistan.

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Vaccine candidates for poor nations are going to waste

by David C Kaslow, Steve Black, David E. Bloom, Mahima Datla, David Salisbury and Rino Rappuoli

Published in Nature, 18 December 2018.

 

 

Promising immunizations for diseases that affect mostly people in low- and middle-income countries need help getting to market, urge David C. Kaslow and colleagues.

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