Ongoing Exposure of U.K. Infants to Vaccine Serotype Pneumococci

by Mary Slack, FRCPATH; Andrew Vyse, PhD; Harish Madhava, MD; Ralf-Rene Reinert, MD; Gillian Ellsbury, MD; Carole Czudek, PhD; Bradford Gessner, MD

Published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, April 2019. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002184  "To the editors: 

We read with interest the article by Makwana et al. The authors note that most childhood invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases are now due to non-13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes though PCV13 serotypes remain in circulation with serotypes 3 and 19A listed among the top 10 that caused IPD in children in 2015/16. Of the 25 cases with PCV13-type IPD in 2015/16, 11 (44%) were due to serotype 19A.

 

Key insight is given into the IPD burden in infants 3–11 months of age, which over the 6-year study period accounted for a substantial proportion (508/1255, 40%) of the total in children <5 years of age. Additionally, meningitis was most prevalent in infants (209/456 cases, 45.8%) and was associated with the highest case fatality (9.6%). The most recent data from 2015/16 showed 103/271 (38%) of IPD cases occurred in infants 3–11 months of age, with 5 (4.8%) attributed to PCV13 serotypes. This reflects an increase in infant IPD compared with 2014/15 and slightly exceeds the number of cases in this age group in 2010/11 when PCV13 was first introduced illustrating a continuing and substantial burden of infant IPD. ..."

 

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Integrated Safety Profile of a New Approved, Fully Liquid DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib Vaccine

by Jin Xu, PhD; Jon E. Stek, MS; Eddy Ziani, MD; G. Frank Liu, PhD; Andrew W. Lee, MD

Published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, April 2019. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002257

 

 

DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib is a fully liquid, hexavalent vaccine containing a 5-antigen pertussis component, approved since 2016 in Europe [Vaxelis; DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib vaccine: Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (5 acellular components: pertussis toxoid [PT], filamentous haemagglutinin [FHA], pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae Types 2 and 3 [FIM]), hepatitis B (recombinant DNA: rDNA), poliomyelitis (inactivated) and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (adsorbed); MCM Vaccine B.V., The Netherlands] for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b. The comparator vaccine (control) was INFANRIX hexa (GlaxoSmithKline Biologics S.A., Rixensart, Belgium) (DTaP3-IPV-HepB/Hib) in European studies and PENTACEL (DTaP5-IPV/Hib) (Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA) in US studies.

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Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Neonates Prior to Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Use in South Africa 2003–2008

by Krishnee Moodley, MBChB, FCPath, MMed; Yacoob Mahomed Coovadia, MBChB, FCPathSA; Cheryl Cohen, MBChB, PhD; Susan Meiring, MBChB, DTM&H; Sarona Lengana, MBChB, DipHIVManSA; Linda De Gouveia, NDMed Tech; Claire von Mollendorf, MBChB, MSc, PhD; Penny Crowther-Gibson, MSc, MSc; Vanessa Quan, MBChB, MPH; Brian Eley, MBChB; Gary Reubenson, MBBCh, FCPaed; Trusha Nana, MBChB, FCPath, MMed; Anne von Gottberg, MBChB, PhD

Published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, April 2019. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002096

 

 

Neonatal invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in developing countries is poorly described. Researchers provide a baseline description of neonatal IPD in South Africa, before implementation of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2009.

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The True Cost of Measles Outbreaks During the Postelimination Era

by Maria E. Sundaram, MSPH, PHD; L. Beryl Guterman, MSPH; Saad B. Omer, MBBS, MPH, PhD

Published in JAMA, 07 March 2019. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.1506

 

 

"A large measles outbreak in Washington State has prompted officials to declare a state of emergency. As of March 4, 2019, the Washington State Health Department reported 71 confirmed cases, with the majority of cases among individuals who were not vaccinated or who had an unverified vaccination status. The outbreak is centered in a geographic cluster of persistently high vaccine exemption rates among young children. This cluster has persisted despite the overall reduction in vaccine exemptions in the state of Washington, subsequent to the introduction of legally mandated health care practitioner counseling of parents seeking vaccine exemptions.

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Influenza Epidemiology, Vaccine Coverage and Vaccine Effectiveness in Children Admitted to Sentinel Australian Hospitals in 2017: Results from the PAEDS-FluCAN Collaboration

by Christopher C Blyth, Kristine K Macartney, Jocelynne McRae, Julia E Clark, Helen S Marshall, Jim Buttery, Joshua R Francis, Tom Kotsimbos, Paul M Kelly, and Allen C Cheng

Published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, 05 March 2019. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy597

 

 

In 2017, Australia experienced record influenza notifications. Two surveillance programs combined to summarize the epidemiology of hospitalized influenza in children and report on vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the context of a limited nationally funded vaccination program.

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