A Universal Influenza Vaccine: The Strategic Plan for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

by Emily J Erbelding, Diane J Post, Erik J Stemmy, Paul C Roberts, Alison Deckhut Augustine, Stacy Ferguson, Catharine I Paules, Barney S Graham, Anthony S Fauci

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 218, Issue 3, 2 July 2018, Pages 347–354, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy103

 

A priority for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases is development of a universal influenza vaccine providing durable protection against multiple influenza strains. NIAID will use this strategic plan as a foundation for future investments in influenza research.

 

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Vaccination to reduce antimicrobial resistance

by Amy Sarah Ginsburg, Keith Klugman The Lancet Global Health, November 8, 2017: 'Vaccination to reduce antimicrobial resistance' highlights the barriers to appropriate use of antibiotics in addition to identifying consequences of using antibiotics inappropriately to treat pneumonia. "Reducing the development of antimicrobial resistance is a key factor for consideration in the prevention and treatment of childhood pneumonia. Diminishing the need for antibiotics by decreasing the incidence and bu...
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Argentina sees decrease in pneumonia hospitalization rate after introduction of 13-valent PCV

Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, February 19, 2018 Researchers assessed the burdens of both invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized children <5 years during the first 2 years of Argentina's universal pneumococcal vaccination program. These children were compared to those in the pre-vaccination period. A "rapid and significant decrease in the rates of hospitalization resulting from IPD and/or CAP during the first 2 years a...
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Evaluation of Live Attenuated Human Metapneumovirus Vaccine in Adults, Children

Researchers from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and National Institutes of Health share their research findings on the experimental recombinant human metapneumovirus (HMPV) vaccine (rHMPV-Pa): "A phase I clinical trial of an experimental live attenuated rHMPV-Pa was conducted sequentially in (1) adults, (2) HMPV-seropositive children, and (3) HMPV-seronegative children. While rHMPV-Pa was appropriately restricted in replication in adults and HMPV-seropositive children, it was ov...
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How Can We Best Protect Infants from Pertussis?

Author Kathryn Edwards provides a follow-up on the implications of a pertussis study by Merkel et. al. in a baboon model.

 

Studies by Merkel et. al. established that infant baboons challenged in the airway with live Bordetella pertussis organisms, unsurprisingly, develop "clinical pertussis." However, when infant baboons were immunized with acellular pertussis vaccines followed by Bordetella challenge, they were protected against symptomatic infection but remained capable of transmitting B. pertussis to cage mates. Futhermore, the group discovered that pregnant baboons immunized with acellular pertussis vaccines could confer transplacental antibody and provide protection to their newborn infants after respiratory challenge with B. pertussis. Despite this findings, one problem still remains:

 

"Despite the success of maternal immunization programs to reduce infant disease, one complicating factor is that, for many years, it has been known that elevated levels of maternal antibody can suppress infant antibody responses after primary immunizations. In fact, we and others have demonstrated that high levels of preexisting transplacentally derived B. pertussis antibody suppress infant immune responses to pertussis vaccine. The biologic relevance of this suppression has not been demonstrated in changes in disease rates in infants born to mothers immunized in pregnancy but requires continued evaluation. In summary, one must be mindful that all of the antigens included in the maternal immunization cocktail have the potential to suppress infant immune responses to primary immunization and that only antigens absolutely needed for maternal protection or infant protection in the 6–8 weeks before onset of the infant primary vaccination series should be administered."

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