Risk factors associated with Streptococcus pneumonia carriage in children under five years old with acute respiratory infection in Niger

 By Dano, Ibrahim Dan et al

 

The Pan African Medical Journal , July 19, 2019

 

A questionnaire was addressed to parents for the collection of sociodemographic and medical information. Nasopharyngeal swabbing was processed using a molecular method. We used logistic regression models to examine independent associations between pneumococcal carriage and potential risk factors. All associations with a p-value of < 0.25 in the bivariate regression analyses were subsequently entered in the multivariate regression model.

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Increasing Rates of Pediatric Empyema and Disease Severity With Predominance of Serotype 3 S. pneumonia

By Haggie, Stuart, Fitzgerald, Dominic A, Pandit, Chetan, Selvadurai, Hiran, Robinson, Paul, Gunasekera, Hasantha,, Britton, Philip.

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: December 2019.

 A retrospective study between 2011 and 2018 of empyema cases admitted to a large pediatric referral hospital, for management with either pleural drainage and fibrinolytics or surgical intervention.

There were 195 cases in 8 years. Empyema incidence and ICU admission rates significantly increased during the study with a peak incidence of 7.1/1000 medical admissions in 2016 (χ2 for trend of incidence 37.8, P < 0.001 and for ICU admissions 15.3, P < 0.001). S. pneumoniae was the most common pathogen (75/195, 39%) with serotype 3 the most detected (27/75: 27%). S. pyogenes compared with S. pneumoniae had significantly fewer days of fever before admission (3.9 vs. 6.4, mean difference 2.4, 95% CI: 0.84–4.08, P = 0.003) and higher proportion requiring direct ICU admission (6/75; 8% vs. 7/15; 47%, P < 0.001). Compared with S. pneumoniae, cases with no pathogen detected by culture or PCR had fewer days of fever post intervention (4.4 vs. 7.4 days, mean difference 2.7 days, P = 0.002). S. aureus occurred more commonly in infants (10/25; 40% vs. 1/75; 1%, P < 0.001) and children of indigenous background (5/25; 20% vs. 1/75; 1%, P < 0.001) compared with S. pneumoniae.

We report increasing rates of pediatric empyema with higher proportions requiring ICU treatment. The most common pathogens detected were S. pneumoniae, S. aureus and S. pyogenes. Despite high 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage, serotype 3 was the most common S. pneumoniae serotype identified.

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Potential effect of age of BCG vaccination on global paediatric tuberculosis mortality: a modelling study

By Partho Roy, Johan Vekemans, Andrew Clark, Colin Sanderson, Rebecca C Harris, Richard G White.

 

The Lancet, Global Health, December 1, 2019

 

BCG has been recommended at birth in countries with a high tuberculosis burden for decades, yet delayed vaccination is widespread. To support a WHO guidance review, we estimated the potential global tuberculosis mortality benefit of administering BCG on time and consequences of later administration.

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Cost-effectiveness of introducing the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for children under 5 years in the Islamic Republic of Iran

By Ezoji K, Yaghoubi M, Nojomi M, Mahmoody S, Zahraie SM, Moradi-Lakeh M, Tabatabaei SR, Karimi A.

Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, November 27, 2019

Pneumococcal disease is estimated to affect 18 713 211 children under 5 years (519 412 pneumonia, 18 148 116 acute otitis media, 6884 meningitis, and 38 799 non-pneumonia, non-meningitis) in 10 years (2014-2023) without use of the vaccine. Introduction of PCV-13 would prevent 4 900 084 cases of pneumococcal disease (190 849 pneumonia, 4 692 450 acute otitis media, 2529 meningitis, and 14 256 non-pneumonia, non-meningitis). Pneumococcal infection would cause 287 950 hospital admissions and 29 399 deaths; vaccination could avert 105 802 hospital admissions and 9997 deaths. The incremental cost-effectiveness was estimated to be US$ 1890 and US$ 1538 per averted DALY for the government and society respectively.

 

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Indirect Effects of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Adult Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Rural Western Kenya.

By Godfrey M. Bigogo, Allan Audi, Joshua Auko,George O. A1 Benjamin J. Ochieng, Herine Odiembo,Arthur Odoyo,Marc-Alain Widdowson, Clayton Onyango,Martien W. Borgdorff, Daniel R. Feikin,Maria da G Carvalho, Cynthia G. Whitney, and Jennifer R. Verani

Clinical Infectious Diseases, November 27, 2019

Data on pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) indirect effects in low-income countries with high HIV burden are limited. We examined adult pneumococcal pneumonia incidence before and after 10-valent PCV introduction in Kenya in 2011

 

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