Infant Pneumococcal Carriage During Influenza, RSV, and hMPV Respiratory Illness Within a Maternal Influenza Immunization Trial

By Alastair F Murray,  Janet A Englund,  Jane Kuypers,  James M Tielsch,  Joanne Katz, Subarna K Khatry,  Steven C Leclerq,  Helen Y Chu

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, To be published September 15, 2019

 

In this post-hoc analysis of midnasal pneumococcal carriage in a community-based, randomized prenatal influenza vaccination trial in Nepal with weekly infant respiratory illness surveillance, 457 of 605 (75.5%) infants with influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), or human metapneumovirus (hMPV) illness had pneumococcus detected. Pneumococcal carriage did not impact rates of lower respiratory tract disease for these 3 viruses. Influenza-positive infants born to mothers given influenza vaccine had lower pneumococcal carriage rates compared to influenza-positive infants born to mothers receiving placebo (58.1% versus 71.6%, P = 0.03). Maternal influenza immunization may impact infant acquisition of pneumococcus during influenza infection.

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The Persistence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Types 3, 19A, and 19F in the UK Adult Population

By Mary Slack,  Andrew Vyse,  Harish Madhava,  Gillian Ellsbury,  Carole Czudek, Rene Reinert,  Brad Gessner,  Luis Jodar

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, August 15, 2019

 

To the Editor—Using nasal wash samples and conventional microbiological cultures, Adler et al [1] detected pneumococcal colonization in 6.6% of healthy adult study participants (28 of 427), sampled 5 years after the introduction of infant immunization with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in the United Kingdom. Although the majority were non-PCV13 (nonvaccine type) serotypes, 3 PCV13 (vaccine type [VT]) serotypes (3, 19A, and 19F) were detected, serotype 3 being the most common VT identified (in 5 of 28 participants [17.9%]). The study participants were nonsmokers without major comorbid conditions or contact with children <5 years old.

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Birth Cohort Effects in Influenza Surveillance Data: Evidence That First Influenza Infection Affects Later Influenza-Associated Illness

By Alicia P Budd,  Lauren Beacham,  Catherine B Smith,  Rebecca J Garten,  Carrie Reed, Krista Kniss,  Desiree Mustaquim,  Farida B Ahmad,  Charisse N Cummings,  Shikha Garg, Min Z Levine,  Alicia M Fry,  Lynnette Brammer

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, September 1, 2019

 

The evolution of influenza A viruses results in birth cohorts that have different initial influenza virus exposures. Historically, A/H3 predominant seasons have been associated with more severe influenza-associated disease; however, since the 2009 pandemic, there are suggestions that some birth cohorts experience more severe illness in A/H1 predominant seasons.

United States influenza virologic, hospitalization, and mortality surveillance data during 2000–2017 were analyzed for cohorts born between 1918 and 1989 that likely had different initial influenza virus exposures based on viruses circulating during early childhood. Relative risk/rate during H3 compared with H1 predominant seasons during prepandemic versus pandemic and later periods were calculated for each cohort.

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Standard-Dose Intradermal Influenza Vaccine Elicits Cellular Immune Responses Similar to Those of Intramuscular Vaccine in Men With and Those Without HIV Infection

By Samuel Amoah,  Margarita Mishina,  Prabda Praphasiri,  Weiping Cao,  Jin Hyang Kim, Justine S Liepkalns,  Zhu Guo,  Paul J Carney,  Jessie C Chang,  Stefan Fernandez, Shikha Garg,  Lauren Beacham,  Timothy H Holtz,  Marcel E Curlin,  Fatimah Dawood, Sonja J Olsen,  Shivaprakash Gangappa,  James Stevens,  Suryaprakash Sambhara

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, September 1, 2019

 

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected persons are at a higher risk of severe influenza. Although we have shown that a standard-dose intradermal influenza vaccine versus a standard-dose intramuscular influenza vaccine does not result in differences in hemagglutination-inhibition titers in this population, a comprehensive examination of cell-mediated immune responses remains lacking.

Serological, antigen-specific B-cell, and interleukin 2–, interferon γ–, and tumor necrosis factor α–secreting T-cell responses were assessed in 79 HIV-infected men and 79 HIV-uninfected men.

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Effect of a Russian-backbone live-attenuated influenza vaccine with an updated pandemic H1N1 strain on shedding and immunogenicity among children in The Gambia: an open-label, observational, phase 4 study

By Benjamin B Lindsey, Ya Jankey Jagne, Edwin P Armitage, Anika Singanayagam, Hadijatou J Sallah, Sainabou Drammeh, Elina Senghore, Nuredin I Mohammed, David Jeffries, Katja Höschler, John S Tregoning, Adam Meijer, Ed Clarke, Prof Tao Dong, Prof Wendy Barclay, Prof Beate Kampmann, Thushan I de Silva

The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, August 1, 2019

 

The efficacy and effectiveness of the pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) component in live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is poor. The reasons for this paucity are unclear but could be due to impaired replicative fitness of pH1N1 A/California/07/2009-like (Cal09) strains. We assessed whether an updated pH1N1 strain in the Russian-backbone trivalent LAIV resulted in greater shedding and immunogenicity compared with LAIV with Cal09.

We did an open-label, prospective, observational, phase 4 study in Sukuta, a periurban area in The Gambia. We enrolled children aged 24–59 months who were clinically well. Children received one dose of the WHO prequalified Russian-backbone trivalent LAIV containing either A/17/California/2009/38 (Cal09) or A/17/New York/15/5364 (NY15) based on their year of enrolment. Primary outcomes were the percentage of children with LAIV strain shedding at day 2 and day 7, haemagglutinin inhibition seroconversion, and an increase in influenza haemagglutinin-specific IgA and T-cell responses at day 21 after LAIV. This study is nested within a randomised controlled trial investigating LAIV–microbiome interactions (NCT02972957).

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