The Influence of National Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children. Do Pediatricians Follow the Recommendations?

By Grażyna Kraj, Joanna Peradzyńska, Julia Chądzyńska, Marek Kulus, Krystian Wołoszyn, Teresa Jackowska, Maria Krajewska, Anna Mołdoch-Łukasik, Agnieszka Czubik-Przybyła, Aneta Górska-Kot, Katarzyna Krenke

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, May 30, 2019


This is a retrospective study whose main objective was to analyze the influence of the Polish Guidelines for the Management of Respiratory Tract Infections of 2010 (PGMRTI) on in-hospital treatment of children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Files from four Warsaw hospitals were reviewed to identify children with uncomplicated CAP, treated before (2008–2009) (pre-PGMRTI) and after (2011–2012) (post-PGMRTI) publication of the guidelines. Predefined data on the management were compared. A cohort of 2,359 children (1,081 pre-PGMRTI and 1,278 post-PGMRTI) was included. We found that co-amoxiclav was the most common first-line therapy in children >3 months of age (34.6% and 40.4% pre- and post-PGMRTI, respectively), followed by cefuroxime (31.8% and 20.9% pre- and post-PGMRTI, respectively; p < 0.0001) and macrolides (17.4% and 24.5% pre- and post-PGMRTI, respectively; p < 0.0001). Amoxicillin was rarely used (5.4% and 4.9%, pre- and post-PGMRTI, respectively). The study revealed an overuse of inhaled bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and mucoactive drugs. Blood diagnostic tests were applied to a significant percentage of patients: blood cultures (41.2% and 44.5% pre-and post-PGMRTI, respectively) and serology for atypical pathogens (27.9% and 44.9% pre-and post-PGMRTI, respectively; p < 0.0001). The number of follow-up chest X-rays increased (30.5% and 53.8% pre- and post-PGMRTI, respectively; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the study demonstrates an unsatisfactory influence of the guidelines on in-hospital management of CAP in children. Despite an explicit recommendation for the use of amoxicillin, it was still underused. Other methods of education and guideline dissemination are needed to optimize the prescribing of antibiotics.

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Evaluating the use of job aids and user instructions to improve adherence for the treatment of childhood pneumonia using amoxicillin dispersible tablets in a low-income setting: a mixed-method study

By Haribondhu Sarma, Emily Gerth-Guyette, Syaket Ahmed Shakil, Kazi Robiul Alom, Elizabeth Abu-Haydar, Methelda D’Rozario, Md Tariqujjaman, Shams E Arifeen, Tahmeed Ahmed

BMJ Open, May 30, 2019


We conducted a study to evaluate the use of job aids and simple user instructions to improve adherence for the treatment of childhood pneumonia with amoxicillin dispersible tablet (DT).

A mixed-method study implemented in three phases between October 2015 and February 2016.

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Effects of scaling up various community-level interventions on child mortality in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania: a modeling study

By Celestin Hategeka, Germaine Tuyisenge, Christian Bayingana, and Lisine Tuyisenge

Global Health Research and Policy, May 29, 2019


Improving child health remains one of the most significant health challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, a region that accounts for half of the global burden of under-five mortality despite having approximately 13% of the world population and 25% of births globally. Improving access to evidence-based community-level interventions has increasingly been advocated to contribute to reducing child mortality and, thus, help low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) achieve the child health related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target. Nevertheless, the coverage of community-level interventions remains suboptimal. In this study, we estimated the potential impact of scaling up various community-level interventions on child mortality in five East African Community (EAC) countries (i.e., Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania).

We identified ten preventive and curative community-level interventions that have been reported to reduce child mortality: Breastfeeding promotion, complementary feeding, vitamin A supplementation, Zinc for treatment of diarrhea, hand washing with soap, hygienic disposal of children’s stools, oral rehydration solution (ORS), oral antibiotics for treatment of pneumonia, treatment for moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), and prevention of malaria using insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying (ITN/IRS). Using the Lives Saved Tool, we modeled the impact on child mortality of scaling up these 10 interventions from baseline coverage (2016) to ideal coverage (99%) by 2030 (ideal scale-up scenario) relative to business as usual (BAU) scenario (forecasted coverage based on prior coverage trends). Our outcome measures include number of child deaths prevented.

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Oral Antibiotics for Treating Children With Community-Acquired Pneumonia Complicated by Empyema.

By Lauren E. Kushner, Delma J. Nieves, Stephanie Osborne, Hita Vora, Antonio Arrieta, Jasjit Singh

Clinical Pediatrics,  May 23, 2019


No consensus exists on management of children with community-acquired pneumonia complicated by empyema (CAP-Em). We evaluated outpatient oral (O-Abx) compared with parenteral antibiotics (OPAT) in children with CAP-Em. We also evaluated inflammatory markers to guide length of treatment. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients discharged (2006-2016) with CAP-Em. Primary outcome measured was treatment success (no change in antibiotics or readmission to hospital for treatment of CAP-Em). White blood cell (WBC) count, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) serial measurements were identified. Success was achieved in 133/144 (92.4%) O-Abx and 7/12 (58%) OPAT patients (P = .0031). WBC and CRP decreased early; and ESR increased initially (admit and switch to O-Abx) and decreased by end of treatment. O-Abx is the modality of choice for treatment of CAP-Em after hospital discharge. WBC and CRP are useful to monitor success of O-Abx switch; and ESR provides guidance for length of treatment.

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Comparative efficacy of Chinese herbal injections combined with azithromycin for mycoplasma pneumonia in children: A Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

By Xiaojiao Duan, Kaihuan Wang, Jiarui Wu, Dan Zhang, Xinkui Liu, Mengwei Ni, Shuyu Liu, Ziqi Meng

Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics/Early View, May 22, 2019


An increasing macrolide resistance leads to complex clinical treatment schemes in mycoplasma pneumonia in children. Chinese herbal injection (CHI) is widely used to treat it and may provide a new treatment regimen. This study was conducted to systematically evaluate the efficacy of CHIs combined with azithromycin for treating mycoplasma pneumonia in children by Bayesian network meta‐analysis.

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHIs combined with azithromycin for mycoplasma pneumonia in children were searched in electronic databases and related references from initiation to 30 October 2018. Two researchers conducted data extraction and risk of bias assessment. WinBUGS software and STATA software were adopted to analyse the data.

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